International categories:

The following definitions base on the SCALP-criteria (Molinari-Jobin et al. 2003), are adapted to the situation in Germany and incorporate the wolf (BfN-Skripten 413):

C1: hard fact = lynx/wolf caught in the wild, lynx/wolf found dead, genetic proof, photograph, radio telemetry location

C2: confirmed presence sign = prey remains, tracks, scats (only wolf) or howling (only wolf) confirmed by an expert 

C3: unconfirmed presence sign = confirmation or exclusion by an expert impossible, such as sightings, claw marks, hair without genetic proof or marking sites without genetic proof

Falsch: False report = presence sign of another species. In this Moni-Tool presence signs of another species are not included.

K. B.: evaluation impossible = information is not sufficient for an evaluation.


  • Reinhardt I., Kaczensky P., Knauer F., Rauer G., Kluth G., Wölfl S., Huckschlag D. und Wotschikowksy U. (2015): Monitoring von Wolf, Luchs und Bär in Deutschland. BfN-Skripten 413, 94 S.
  • Molinari-Jobin, A., P. Molinari, Ch. Breitenmoser-Würsten, M. Wölf, C. Stanisa, M. Fasel, P. Stahl, JM. Vandel, L. Rotelli, P. Kaczensky, T. Huber, M. Adamic, I. Koren & U. Breitenmoser (2003): The pan-Alpine conservation strategy for the lynx. Nature and environment No. 130, Council of Europe, Strasbourg, 25 pp.